2021 Poster Presentations

Beyond Snack-cess
The purpose of this presentation is to increase school psychologists' knowledge of Type 1, or juvenile, diabetes and how it impacts students' school performance. The poster will include a brief medical profile of JD, as well as behavior and psycho-social aspects of JD that may be common in school settings. Considerations in appropriate assessments, interventions, local and national resources, and bibliotherapy are also examined. Participants will gain knowledge on how to best serve students with T1D in school settings while being aware of culturally related factors.


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Angela Wang, Ed.S. Student - Temple University
Sydney Young - Temple University
Jack Fernsby, Ed.S. Student - Temple University
Anjie Yang, Ph.D. Student - Temple University
Bullying and Job Satisfaction in PA School Psychologists
School psychologists are essential personnel in school systems upon which children and their families rely to provide high-quality services. As there is a shortage of school psychologists as well as job retention concerns, owing to issues such as burnout, it is helpful to examine which other factors negatively impact job satisfaction in school psychologists, such as the experience of being bullied at work. The purpose of this study was to study the relationship between bullying and job satisfaction in practicing school psychologists. In this sample of 94 Pennsylvania school psychologists, the experience of being bullied at work was associated with diminished job satisfaction. Specifically, the independent variables of being bullied at work predicted 18.2% of the variance in job satisfaction in this sample, with verbal and indirect bullying the only types of bullying that contributed a significant amount of the variance. Such findings suggest that experiencing the deleterious effects of being bullied at work may contribute to burnout, and an eventual decision to leave the field of school psychology. We discuss the implications of verbal and indirect bullying upon school psychologists’ occupational wellbeing, and for conference participants, offer suggestions to improve morale and job satisfaction.

Laura M. Crothers, DEd - Duquesne University
Taylor Steeves, M.S.Ed. - Duquesne University
Brianna Drischler, M.S.Ed. - Duquesne University
Ara J. Schmitt, Ph.D., NCSP - Duquesne University
Cognitive Biases in Evaluating Academic Progress Monitoring
The purpose of this presentation is to assess the impacts of cognitive bias on the evaluation of formative assessment data. It is of paramount importance that educators and school psychologists ensure that their students are properly responding to interventions, yet school psychologists’ instructional decisions can be impacted by cognitive biases even within these response-to-intervention models. While decision-making in conjunction with psychoeducational reports has been well-researched, the impacts of cognitive biases on progress monitoring decisions are less understood. Belief perseverance may lead a psychologist to fail to consider new information or revise their previous impressions, while sunk-cost fallacy may result in psychologists pursuing a failing intervention to the end because they have already put time and effort into the program. In this study, participants viewed graphs of time series data and made decisions regarding the progress of the sample students. Results of this study will highlight inhibitors to accurate data-based decision making. Session attendees will discover action steps for cognitive bias prevention in their own practices, ensuring that their own students will in fact continue to respond to intervention.

Adelle Sturgell, B.S. - Lehigh University
Ethan Van Norman, Ph.D. - Lehigh University
Cultural Brokers: Mediating Barriers of Accessing Services
With the increasing population of culturally and linguistically diverse students, schools must be equipped to meet the needs of refugee students and families. Refugee students face unique challenges with adjustment, trauma exposure, language barriers, and financial hardships. Refugee families can find it challenging to access services due to barriers of language proficiency. Schools play an essential role in addressing the needs of refugee students by providing services. However, refugee youth and families underutilize mental health services. The utilization of cultural brokers can help remedy the barriers that refugee families face in receiving adequate services. A cultural broker is someone who bridges people or groups of different cultures to enhance practice, improve communication, resolve conflict, and strengthen relationships. Cultural brokers can help school staff understand the cultural backgrounds and practices that their students have. Additionally, cultural brokers can help implement and develop culturally competent practices in working with refugee students. Furthermore, cultural brokers can help families interpret and navigate the educational system. Cultural brokers can also provide translation and interpretation services to help reduce language difficulties between the family and school. The purpose of the poster is to provide information to clinicians on utilizing cultural brokers when working with refugees.

Johnson Ho, M.Ed. - Temple University
Exploration of Decision Rules for Progress Monitoring Data
The purpose of this presentation is to evaluate the accuracy of existing curriculum-based measurement of reading (CBM-R) decision rules when applied to progress monitoring data from two CATS developed by Renaissance Learning (Star Reading [SR] and Star Math [SM]). The presentation will explore the requisite number of months data needs to be collected before sufficient sensitivity and specificity (>.70) can be achieved to determine whether to make an instructional change or whether to continue an intervention. The primary conditions of interest will be the type of decision rule used (data-point vs. trend-line), the goal line performance is compared to (normative vs. benchmark), and the number of observations required before sufficient levels of sensitivity and specificity are achieved. The analyses will shed light on the decision-making frameworks and progress monitoring conditions likely to promote accurate interpretations of SR and SM progress monitoring data. This project is the first, to our knowledge, that has explicitly evaluated decision making frameworks used in conjunction with academic CATs. Attendees will gain valuable insight to better evaluate CAT progress monitoring data they help collect in schools.

Emily Forcht, B.S. - Lehigh University
Kirsten Trume, Ed.S., NCSP - Lehigh University
Ethan Van Norman, Ph.D. - Lehigh University
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD): An Overview
Purpose: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) affects nearly 5% of school-aged children in the United States. FASD is characterized by deficiencies in executive functioning, social skills and sometimes accompanied with facial abnormalities. As school mental health professionals, it is important for us to know how to support a diverse range of students who not only represent recurring referrals (ASD, ADHD, SLD), but students who suffer from low incidence diseases as well.
Content: This presentation offers participants knowledge about the disorder, comorbidities, family and life skills, treatments, interventions, instruction, and strategies. This poster also provides lived experiences and an overview of social, emotional, and academic supports.
Benefits: It is our goal that each participant knows how to properly serve a student who is diagnosed with FASD. We hope that you take this knowledge with you and can provide support if a student in your district has FASD.
Elizabeth Switzer, B.A. - Temple University
David Busch, B.A. - Temple University
Sophia DiEmidio, B.A. - Temple University
Hannah Evans, B.S. - Temple University
Impact of a Psychiatric Diagnosis on Assessment Practices
The Individual and Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA) category Emotional Disturbance (ED) is a complex category for school psychologists to assess and has a legal definition that remains susceptible to varying interpretation by judges, attorneys, law makers, and school professionals. This susceptibility further complicates the task of the school psychologist to make determinations based on best practices that are consistent with the established legal precedent. In addition, practitioners may vary in their beliefs of what constitutes a behavioral presentation consistent with an ED identification. The current study builds upon the research of Della Toffalo and Pederson (2005) who found that the presence of a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-V) diagnosis is influential in school psychologists’ eligibility recommendations. The aims of the present study include examining current PA school psychologists’ practices related to eligibility determination for students with ED in schools and determine if the presence of a clinical diagnosis impacts eligibility recommendations. Participants will learn about (a) the current school psychology ED assessment and eligibility practices literature base and (b) recommendations for future research, specifically regarding the need for understanding bias in assessments and decision making.

Jessica Dirsmith, D.Ed. - Duquesne University
Mackenzi Brozovich, Ed.S. - Duquesne University
Kristen Mahony, M.S.Ed. - Duquesne University
Anna Marie Paolicelli B.A. - Duquesne University
Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors in ADHD
The present study examined the rates of internalizing and externalizing behaviors of students diagnosed with Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) receiving supplemental academic instruction. The Student Risk Screening Scale-Internalizing and Externalizing (SRSS-IE) was used to assess internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors. Participants included 27 sixth and seventh-grade students who were receiving support in reading or math. A matched control design was used to examine rates of internalizing and externalizing behaviors of students with ADHD compared to their peers. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was conducted to determine the effect of ADHD classification on internalizing and externalizing behaviors related to social functioning while controlling for sex and grade. MANCOVA results revealed statistically significant differences among the ADHD classifications. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was conducted on each dependent variable as follow-up tests to MANCOVA. It was found that ADHD classification differences were significant for externalizing behaviors but not for internalizing behaviors. A comparison of adjusted means revealed that the ADHD group was 3.39 standard deviations higher than the non-ADHD group on measures of externalizing behaviors. These findings support existing literature in that assessment measures that examine rates of externalizing behaviors are a good indication of ADHD. Limitations of the study are discussed.

Lauren E. Lucas, M.Ed. - Indiana University of Pennsylvania
Kelly L. Sherretts, M. Ed. - Indiana University of Pennsylvania
Jeffery W. Morris, M.Ed. - Indiana University of Pennsylvania
Jenna M. Hennessey, Ph.D. - Indiana University of Pennsylvania
Supporting Students’ Relationships in a Post-Pandemic World
The purpose of this proposed poster presentation is to summarize recent research and provide recommendations regarding facilitating students’ friendships and positive peer relationships upon their return to in-person learning following COVID-19-related school closures. COVID-19 has had a significant impact on the lives of children and adolescents, particularly with respect to mental health (Phelps & Sperry, 2020). One specific area of concern is peer relationships; in a recent study, 11.4% of a large sample of adolescents reported challenges with friendships during COVID-19 (Scott et al., 2021). Much of children and adolescents’ social interaction takes place at school, and thus COVID-19-related closures and quarantines have decreased these opportunities and prevented friendships from developing naturally. Some students may feel isolated from their peers due to this lack of face-to-face interaction or because of pandemic-related mental health challenges. Upon returning to school, school psychologists can help facilitate the repair of these relationships and the development of new ones by providing trauma-informed psychoeducation and encouraging participation in peer support networks and extracurricular activities. Participants will benefit from this presentation by learning about the impact of COVID-19 on students’ friendships and peer relationships as well as evidence-based practices to support these relationships in a post-pandemic world.

Natanel Paley, M.Ed. - Temple University
Use of Cover-Copy-Compare to Prevent Pandemic Learning Loss
The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the effects of an evidence-based intervention (EBI) on a student’s learning amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. The intervention selected was Cover-Copy-Compare (CCC) with the goal of increasing the student’s math fluency, accuracy, and concept application. The student identified as at-risk was unresponsive to Tier 1 and Tier 2 efforts and showed regression during school closures due to COVID-19 based on a review of benchmark data. CCC was implemented as a Tier 3 intervention. The intervention was implemented twice a week and progress monitoring was collected weekly using Intervention Central 2-minute multiplication probes. The probes were scored for accuracy and digits correct. Additional measures used include Acadience Concepts and Application 6th-grade probes. A large effect size was obtained for student improvements in digits correct on multiplication and concepts and application probes. This poster will review the methods and procedures for this study including intervention design, implementation, data collection, and results along with the barriers due to sudden shifts to virtual learning. This poster will allow participants to expand on their understanding of the importance evidenced-based interventions have on increasing students’ rate of progress and overall improvement of academic functioning.
Hannah S. Lombardo-Smith, Ed.S. - Ephrata Area School District
Lauren T. Kaiser, Ph.D. - Millersville University
Visual Analysis Conventions in Single-Case Designs
The purpose of this presentation is to find the relationship between visually depicted rate of improvement and quantitative measures of effect size in academic single-case experimental design (SCED) studies. SCEDs are commonly used in educational practice to evaluate the effects of interventions. SCEDs evaluate outcomes before and after the introduction of an intervention for each individual or small group, with each participant serving as their own baseline. The functional relationship between the intervention and the outcome is commonly determined via visual analysis of the graph. However, determination of effects using visual analysis is not always consistent. Recent research has shown that the depiction of data on the graph (e.g., scale, spacing, minimum and maximum axis values) may influence interpretation of intervention effects. In the current project, the slopes of a large number of published academic (i.e., Oral Reading Fluency, Math Computation, and Text Writing Fluency) SCED graphs will be compared to quantitative measures of effect size for the same study, to show the strength of the relationship between these two methods of analysis. Attendees will be able to apply this information when creating their own SCED graphs to more accurately depict intervention effectiveness.

Jaclin Boorse, M.Ed. - Lehigh University
Dayna Younis, M.Ed. - Lehigh University
Katherine Koller, M.Ed. - Lehigh University
Ethan Van Norman, Ph.D. - Lehigh University